Neoplasm

Define neoplasm?

Neoplasm or tumor is a autonomous and uncontrolled cell multiplication. This abnormal growth does not have any function but can harm the body. The abnormal growth of a neoplasm is uncontrolled growth forms a mass called tumor.

Neoplasm is the abnormal growth of cells that forms the tumor in the cancerous and non cancerous form.

Neoplasm are of two types-

  • Benign neoplasm
  • Malignant neoplasm


Benign neoplasm

Benign tumors are of non- cancerous growth but malignant tumors are cancerous in nature.

  • Benign neoplasm are non cancerous forms of tissue proliferation such as skin, moles, uterine fibroids etc.
  • These neoplasm are not life threatening but depending on its location, benign growth may cause symptoms.

Benign tumors grow very slowly and the property of metastasis is absent. the cause of benign neoplasm is exposure to the radiations, environmental toxins, genetics, diet, stress, inflammation, local trauma, infection.

Most common benign neoplasms are-

  • Adenomas
  • Fibromas
  • Hemangiomas
  • Lipomas


Pre malignant or precancerous -
These are the neoplasm that have not become cancerous but have the potential to do so if not treated on time.
  • Hyperplasia
  • Atypia
  • Metaplasia
  • Dysplasia


Malignant neoplasm

Neoplasm that have the cancerous cells and have the property of spread-
  • Abnormal cell growth
  • Capacity to invade other tissues
  • Capacity to spread to other near by tissues
Malignant neoplasm have the capacity to spread rapidly in short period of time and multiply with uncontrolled growth.

Most common malignant neoplasm-
  • Carcinoma
  • Leukemia
  • Lymphoma
  • Fibrosarcoma

Causes of neoplasm

There are many factor that induces the neoplasm in the body that leads to change in the DNA mutations that changes the phenotype and genotype in the cells of the body.
    1. Genetic mutations
    2. Immune disorders
    3. Viral infections
    4. Hormones
    5. Ageing
    6. Smoking
    7. Alcoholism
    8. Obesity
    9. Radiation exposure
    10. Toxins


Symptoms of neoplasm

neoplasm causes the acute to chronic symptoms according to the severity of the neoplasm and the site of the body effected.
  • weakness
  • fever
  • chills
  • nausea and vomiting
  • loss of appetite
  • diarrhea
  • loss of motor and sensory functions
  • infections
  • skin rashes


Diagnosis of the neoplasm

Diagnosis of the neoplasm depends on the type and the site in the body organs. It includes the physical and the medical examination.
  • Blood test
  • Genetic testing
  • X-ray
  • Ultrasonography
  • CT scan
  • PET scans
  • Mammograms


Treatment of the neoplasm

  • Treatment of the neoplasm depends upon the severity and the symptoms in the body.
  • In case of the tumor location and size is smaller, no particular treatment is required only symptomatic treatment to be given.
  • In malignant neoplasms the surgery is the best option.
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Hormonal therapy
  • Ablations
  • Immunotherapy

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