Parkinson Disease

Parkinson Disease

Parkinson disease is a neurological movement disorder that affects the movement of the body.

It is a neurological disorder with increasing age.

Smooth and the coordinated movement of muscles are possible by a neurotransmitter in the brain called dopamine.

Dopamine the substance produced from the Substantia Nigra for the smooth coordination of movements of the body.

Parkinson Disease

In Parkinson disease with increasing aging process, the cells of the Substantia Nigra start to die, so the production of dopamine reduces and around 60-80 per cent production of dopamine is reduced and the symptoms of Parkinson start to appear.

The symptoms increases along with the age and there is no cure for the Parkinson disease which is chronic and worsen over time.

Causes of Parkinson Disease

The exact is unknown but it has been estimated with the genetic and environmental causes.

Low level of dopamine increases the severity of symptoms.

Men are more prone as compared with the females.

Whites are more likely to get more than blacks.

Family history also play an important role.

Exposure to toxins may increases the chances of Parkinson disease.

Head injury is also included in the development of Parkinson disease.


Symptoms of Parkinson diseases

·      The major symptoms which makes the life fatal are-

Symptoms of Parkinson diseases

  • Tremors- shaking movements
  • Rigidity- stiffness of joints
  • Loss of balance and coordination
  • Akinesia- slowness of movement
  • Decreased ability to learn things
  • Voice changes
  • Postural deformity- neck deformity and Back deformity
  • Digestive problems
  • Constipation
  • Stiffness of back
  • Swinging movements decreases
  • Tendency to fall increases
  • Anxiety
  • Sleep deprivation
  • Psychosis

Stages of Parkinson disease

Ø The symptoms of Parkinson become worsen along with the time.
Ø Hoehn and Yahr scale classify the disease into five stages which are as follows-


        Stage 1

  • It is the mildest form of diseases.
  • May not experiences the symptoms.
  • The symptoms may not interfere with the activities of daily life.


        Stage 2

  • This stage takes almost months to years in developing the symptoms.
  • This is the moderate stage having joint stiffness, tremors, facial expressions, trembling, muscle weakness.
  • Changing of postural deformity and gait is start noticing in this stage.


        Stage 3

  • At this stage symptoms reaches to the middle stage. Movements become slower, assistance in some conditions, balance issues are more common in this stage.
  • In this stage person try to complete all the task independently without much assistance.


        Stage 4

  • Significant changes occurs in this stage. Slow movements become worsen and assistance is requires. Person feels unsafe to stay alone.


        Stage 5

  • This is the most dangerous stage and advances in symptoms with time.
  • Person become wheelchair dependent and mental disability is seen. Confusion, delusion, hallucination are more common in this stage.
  • Musculoskeletal deformities such as kyphosis, forward bending, stiffness of back, chorea movements, dystonia are more common in this stage.

Diagnosis of Parkinson disease

The diagnosis of PD is based on the

  • Physical history
  • Neurological examination
  • Health history

There is no particular test for the diagnosing of PD.

  •       MRI scan
  •       CT scan
  •       X-ray
  •       Blood test.
  •       Nerve conduction velocity (N C V)
  •       ECG


Treatment of Parkinson Disease

Parkinson disease is the neurological disorder which can be treated by changing the lifestyle, rehabilitation therapies, and medications.

  • Adequate rest
  • Healthy diet
  • Regular exercises
  • Physiotherapy
  • Occupational therapy
  • Speech therapy
  • Medications-
        • Levodopa
        • Dopamine agonist
        • Anticholinergic drugs
        • Antidepressants

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  1. It is very useful material for preparing the medical exam,Thanks for sharing .


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