Iodine Deficiency Goiter


Goiter is the increase in the size of the thyroid gland. 
Thyroid gland is the endocrine gland located in the front of the neck.
It regulates the all the metabolism of the body that turns food into the energy.
Thyroid gland regulates the heart rate, respiratory rate, digestion and mental functions.
Goiter is the enlargement of the thyroid gland and it may develop in anyone but women are more common as compared with the males.

Causes of the Goiter

  • Iodine deficiency is the major cause of the goiter.
  • Thyroid gland produces thyroid hormones in the presence of the iodine so deficiency of the iodine makes the thyroid gland work harder and harder to produce more hormones, causes the gland to increases in the size.
  • Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the condition of the hypothyroidism where thyroid gland is not able to produce enough thyroid hormones.
  • So low thyroid hormones causes the pituitary gland to make more thyroid stimulating hormone which causes the enlargement in the size of the gland.
  • Inflammation of the thyroid gland can increases the size of the thyroid gland.
  • In Graves diseases thyroid gland produces excess hormones leading to the hyperthyroidism also increases the size of the gland.
  • Thyroid cancer causes the swelling of the thyroid gland and increase in the size.

Types of the Goiter

There are three types of the goiter-
  1. Colloid goiterA colloid goiter develops from the deficiency of the iodine, that is required for the production of the thyroid gland.
  2. Nontoxic goiter- The exact causes is unknown but it may develops due to the taking of lithium in the medications form .this goiter is benign in nature.
  3. Multinodular goiter- When goiter increases in the size it start producing its own hormone hence increasing in the thyroid gland.

Symptoms of the Goiter

  • The first symptom of the goiter is the presence of swelling in the throat.
  • Difficulty in swallowing and breathing
  • Coughing 
  • Changes in the voice
  • Anxiety
  • Headache

Diagnosis of Goiter

Diagnosis of goiter is depends upon the symptoms coming swelling in the throat, neck stiffness or swallowing problems.

Blood test- blood test determines the changes in the hormonal level of the thyroid gland or antibodies are produced into the body against any kind of infection in the body.

Ultrasound- in ultrasound images of neck region and the size of goiter and enlargement of the nodules can be easily seen.

Biopsy -biopsy is also very helpful in the diagnosis of any kind of the abnormality present in the thyroid gland.

Treatment of the Goiter

Treatment of the goiter is depends on the size and the condition and the symptoms produced in the body.
  • Medications- hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism according to it medications to be given. Corticosteroids in inflammatory conditions works good.
  • If the size of the goiter is increased excessively then, surgical procedures can work good through removal of the thyroid gland thyroidectomy.
  • Changing of the lifestyle and diet- physical exercises to be started and healthy diet to be given full of multivitamins, iodine, and dry nuts to be given.

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