Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder in which blood sugar level increases beyond the normal limit in the blood.

Insulin is the hormone produced from the beta cells of pancreas moves the sugar from the blood into the cells to store for energy.

If there is unavailability of the insulin or not functioning properly, leads to the abnormal increases of the sugar in the blood.

With diabetes there are two conditions where-

I)    Firstly insulin is not produced in the sufficient amount to meet the requirements of the body.

II)  Secondly insulin is produced in the good amount but nod used properly.

Untreated diabetes mellitus can damage to the various organs of the body leading to various severe symptoms in the body.


There are different types of diabetes mellitus-

1. Type 1 diabetes

  • it is an autoimmune diseases. The immune system itself destroys the body’s own cells in the pancreas and the production of insulin is not there.
  • It includes the 10 per cent of the people with diabetes. It is also known as juvenile onset of diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).
  • It mainly occurs in the small kids.

2. Type 2 diabetes

  • This condition occurs when the body become resistant to the insulin. Here insulin is produced in good amount but not used properly so causing diabetes.
  • It includes 80 per cent of the people with the diabetes.
  • It is adult onset diabetes mellitus occurs mainly in adults.
  • It is also known as insulin independent diabetes mellitus (IIDM).

3. Gestational diabetes

  • It is the high blood sugar level in the duration of pregnancy. This occurs because of changes of hormones and body become resistant to insulin and hence the blood sugar level increases.
  • After delivery, when the hormones becomes normal the sugar level drops to normal by itself.                                                                                          


Causes of diabetes mellitus

Different causes are associated with different types of diabetes mellitus are as follows-

  • Type 1 diabetes- the exact is unknown but may be estimated by immune system attacks its own cells of pancreas.
  • Gene mutation can be the causes of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
  • Extra weight and obese can be the major factors in this type of diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes is the result of hormonal changes during pregnancy. Because of hormonal changes the effect of insulin become negligible. This causes high blood sugar level in the blood.

 

Symptoms of diabetes mellitus

Symptoms of diabetes mellitus

Type 1 diabetes-

  • Extreme hunger
  • Increase thirst
  • Weight loss
  • Frequent urination
  • Lethargy
  • Fatigue/weakness

Type 2 diabetes-

  • Tiredness
  • Loss of vision
  • Retinopathies
  • Kidney damage
  • Increased urination
  • Increased hunger
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Scar or wounds delay healing


Risk factors of diabetes mellitus

If one of the parents are having diabetes kids have the chances of diabetes.
Overweight is the most common factor.

Physically inactive people have the common chances of diabetes.

Other endocrine disorders such high blood pressure, thyroid diseases, high cholesterol.


Complication of diabetes mellitus

  • Heart diseases
  • Stroke
  • Retinopathy
  • Hearing loss
  • Skin infections
  • Diabetic foot
  • Frozen shoulder stiffness of shoulder joint
  • Depression
  • Irritation

In gestational diabetes, complications are

  • Baby may be premature
  • Jaundice
  • Having risk of diabetes later in life
  • Slow growth and development. 


Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus

  • Blood sugar level
  • Urine test
  • Liver functioning test
  • Kidney function test
  • Muscular examination
  • Muscular deformities


Treatment of diabetes mellitus

  • Insulin is the main treatment in the type 1 diabetes mellitus.
  • Different types of insulin are available according to the severity of the disease.
  • Changing of diet and healthy nutrition
  • Medications
  • Physical exercises
  • Yoga and meditation are the most healing techniques in endocrine dysfunction of the body.


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